Announcements and Reminders
Maybe You Haven’t Covered This
typedef and using
The keyword, typedef, originally from C, is used to define a type.
C++ 11 introduced the keyword, using to act like typedef.
The typeid operator returns an identifier of a type, a variable or an expression. The return of the typeid is a class type, called type_info. You can use the name() member function of the type_info class to display a literal description of the type.
Example 1-8 – typedef, using, typeid
Note different results for different compilers
Binary File I/O
istream member functions
Read a specified number of characters from an input stream and stores them in a char array. The array is not null-terminated.
istream& read (char* s, streamsize n);
Returns the next character to be read without extracting it from the input stream.
Sets the next read position in the input stream. Note, as of C++ 11, seekg will clear the EOF bit, if set.
stream& seekg (streampos pos);
istream& seekg (streamoff offset, ios_base::seekdir way);
ios_base::seekdir can be one of three constants
beg Beginning of the input stream
cur Current position in the input stream
end End of the input stream
Returns the next read position in the input stream.
Example 3-1 – istream member functions
ostream member functions
Write a specified number of characters to an output stream
ostream& write (const char* s, streamsize n);
Sets the next write position in the output stream. Note, as of C++11, seekp will work, even if the EOF bit is set, but it will not change the value of the EOF bit.
ostream& seekp (streampos pos);
ostream& seekp (streamoff off, ios_base::seekdir way);
Returns the next write position in the output stream.
Example 3-2 – ostream member functions
Example 3-3 – binary file I/O: a practical example
C++ Cast Operators
A static_cast is used to convert one type to another. Generally, static_casts should not be used and may be considered dangerous. Often, conversions are automatic and the need to use a static_cast may imply that incorrect types are in use. Static_cast are often used to convert one pointer type to another, or to convert an enumerated value to an integer value.
Example 4-1 – static_cast
A const_cast is used to add or remove constness to an expression. Note, removing constness from a “pointed to” value may result in undefined behavior.
Example 4-2 – const_cast
A reinterpret_cast is used to cast one type to another. It is most commonly used to treat one pointer type as another pointer type, or to treat a pointer type as an integer type and vice versa. Note, this case type may be unsafe and to use it effectively, the sizes of the casted value and the casted type should match.
Example 4-3 – reinterpret_cast
A dynamic_cast is used with inheritance to cast a base class pointer or reference to a derived class pointer or references. This is called downcasting. In order for this to succeed, the base class must be polymorphic (contains a virtual function).
Example 4-4 – dynamic_cast